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Dynamic speakers are widely used in speakers and indispensable in professional sound systems. So what is an electromotive speaker? Follow the article with lassho.edu.vn to learn about the structure and operating principle of dynamic speakers!
Dynamic loudspeakers and applications
Dynamic speaker (symbol Ω), also known as box speaker or resistive speaker, is a common speaker technology that converts electrical signals into mechanical oscillations, reproducing sounds in the frequency range that humans audible (from 16 Hz to 20,000 Hz).
Dynamic loudspeakers are usually housed in a cabinet or loudspeaker box characterized by conical cones. This series of speakers is popular for its characteristics such as rugged design, high sensitivity, wide sound range and great power.
Dynamic speakers are often used as subwoofers, full speakers, depending on different needs, you can choose the most suitable speaker size. In addition, dynamic speakers are also applied in the field of sound performance, stage and professional performances.
However, dynamic speakers often have very large cabinet sizes, occupying space and making it difficult to move.
Speaker construction and working principle
Structure of the dynamic speaker
In the parts of the dynamic speaker, the most important part of the speaker is the diaphragm because this is where the sound will be emitted and transmitted directly to the listener’s ears.
In addition, the dynamic speaker also includes a number of other components such as:
- Spider web has the effect of keeping the voice coil core fixed in position, because when alternating current flows through the negative coil, it will create a moving magnetic field force, helping to create an axial force pushing the negative coil out or in, followed by the movement of the diaphragm.
- The speaker frame (basket or frame), usually made of cast or welded metal, is where all the speaker components are fixed.
- The surround covers the outside of the frame and diaphragm, helping to keep the cone in place in the frame while still vibrating with each movement of the voice coil.
- Excursion is the maximum distance for the cone to move in/out.
Working principle of electrodynamic loudspeaker
Since the principle of operation of this type of speaker is electromechanical , there will be a coil attached to the diaphragms placed in a narrow slot with a magnetic field. When the current passes, the coil will vibrate and move the diaphragm, helping to spread it out into the air, impacting the listener.
To help the sound be transmitted better in all frequency ranges, the dynamic speaker system will include speakers with different configurations and driver sizes. Because each speaker will take care of a separate frequency range to help the sound be emitted better:
- Low frequency range: The oscillation amplitude of the coils is large, the diaphragm must be wide, so the woofer is usually in charge of this frequency range. That’s why bass drivers often have very large diaphragms.
- High frequency range: The amplitude of the coil oscillation is fast, the diaphragm must be small to not interfere, usually taken care of by the tweeter. Therefore, the treble driver is often designed to be very small in size compared to the bass speaker.
- Mid-range or certain frequency bands: The diaphragm needs to be equalized, usually reproduced by the midrange.
How many types of dynamic speakers are there?
Compressed speakers (cone speakers) are speakers used to expand the sound range for a certain size area. There are 2 main types:
- Triple compression speaker , also known as a treble speaker. Due to its compact size, the speaker is used to simulate high-frequency sounds or harsh sounds.
For this type of speaker, because the operating principle is to resonate 3 times before reaching the listener’s ears, the diaphragm is likened to a “closed space”, without a vapor outlet and at the same time also lined with many glass wool with soundproofing effect.
Because of the quite special structure and operating principle, the compressed speaker is most suitable when used to listen to chamber music or in recording studios and closed rooms.
- 2 times compressed speakers also known as loudspeakers, are 3 times larger in size than compressed speakers. Loudspeakers are often placed outdoors because the resonant sound is too loud, the glare is high, causing earache when placed in a closed room.
Universal speakers are one of the types of compression speakers that are quite popular with users, because they often use this type of speaker to enjoy music. Speakers have diaphragms of different shapes and sizes that reproduce different frequency ranges.
- The woofer or subwoofer has a large diaphragm diameter used to simulate bass.
- Mid-range speaker with medium diameter simulates voice, mid sound.
- The treble speaker has a small diaphragm used to simulate treble and high timbre.
Usually, people often combine these types of speakers on one cabinet to create the most perfect and quality sound.
Basic parameters of the dynamic speaker
You should know the basic parameters of dynamic speakers so that when buying speakers, you can choose the right type of speaker for your needs. Normally, dynamic speakers will have the following basic parameters:
- Speaker resistance is also known as speaker impedance, usually denoted by ohms (Ω), this is a technical parameter affecting the speaker, determined by the speaker’s resistance when measured at 1Khz frequency, plays a decisive role. sound quality when combining karaoke speakers and amplifiers.
- Rated power also known as electrical power, expressed in VA or W, is a parameter recorded on electrical equipment, showing the power level that equipment can operate for one hour.
- The reproduction range indicates the speaker’s ability to reproduce the lowest and highest sound within a given frequency range.
- There are also harmonics factor and mean standard sound pressure,…
Difference between dynamic speaker and electrostatic speaker
Electrostatic speakers produce sound with a different mechanism from dynamic speakers, the speaker is operated on the principle of static electricity, when the current changes, it will create continuous suction and push the diaphragm to create sound.
|Simple, easy to produce
|Complicated, difficult to manufacture
|Technical fine-tuning process
|Easier and more accurate
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